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Who do TEFL teachers teach?

TEFL teacher teaching young children in Asia

TEFL teachers teach English to people whose first language is not English.

EFL is mainly a British term meaning English as a Foreign Language.

And a similar term, ESL, is mainly an American term meaning English as a Second Language.

EFL/ESL teachers teach English around the world to people of all nationalities (except native-English-speakers), all ages, all education levels, and all economic levels and professions.

Two Broad EFL/ESL Divisions

Learners living in non-English-speaking countries (EFL)

Example: a Thai businessperson learning English in Thailand
In non-English-speaking countries there is a high demand to learn English, beyond what schooling may or may not be afforded by the state education system, from people of mostly young to middle ages largely but not exclusively in furtherance of their careers. They learn English within their home country, and those who can afford it may also travel on short-term (usually a week to a few weeks) "language holidays" to learn in English-speaking countries.

Learners living in English-speaking countries (ESL)

Example: a Brazilian living and learning English in the USA
Essentially, the demand to learn English in English-speaking countries comes from people who have immigrated or moved there from non-English-speaking countries. This group includes people who have chosen to make a new life in the country and others, for example, refugees. They may be of any age and ability, and they need English for practical purposes to function within the country. Sometimes, the teaching may be supported by government.

Example Learners

Below are the kinds of learners that TEFL teachers teach in general:

Kindergarten Students

Primary/Secondary School Students

Tertiary Education Students

Private Language School Students

Private Learners

Summer Camp Learners

Business Learners

Special English Learners