TEFL Glossary

academic coordinator
person who maintains and develops academic courses and programs; supports teachers

academic year
the start and end date of the school year; ESL/EFL often has continuous enrolment even throughout the summer

accent
the sound of a person's voice that distinguishes it from others

accredited
has official approval from a reliable body; some TEFL courses/certificates are accredited

acculturation
student (or teacher) adaptation to a new culture; many believe this is necessary in order for learning to occur in a foreign country

acquisition
the act of gaining skills and understanding

active listening
structured listening in which the listener confirms (in own words) what has been understood

active voice
a direct form of expression where the subject acts or performs the verb
e.g. "The cat licked the child's hand." (see "passive voice")

additive model
theory that language proficiency relies on the acquisition of the first and second language

adjective
describes a noun or pronoun
e.g. "It was a gorgeous day today."

adjective clause
(also called "adjectival or relative clause")
a clause that contains a subject, verb and relative pronoun (or adverb) and acts like an adjective
e.g. "whose blue eyes were watching"

adjunct
(also called "modifier")
a word, clause, or phrase that modifies or qualifies a verb or noun; when removed the sentence is still grammatically correct (see "complement")

advanced
one of the highest levels for English learners

adverbial clause
a dependent clause that acts as an adverb and indicates such things as time, place, or reason
e.g. "Although we are getting older, we grow more beautiful each day."

affiliation
the sense of being part of a community within the classroom

affix
a morpheme that occurs before, after, or within the root or stem of the word
e.g. a prefix (preheat) or suffix (happiness)

affricate
a speech sound characterized by a "stop" (no air flow) followed immediately by a "fricative" (slow release of air that creates friction)
e.g. "ch" from "chair"

agreement
(also known as "concord")
logical (in a grammatical sense) links between tense, case, or number
e.g. "subject verb agreement"

alveolar
sound formed by touching the tip of the tongue to the spot where the gum line meets the upper teeth (as in "t" or "d")

antecedent
a word, phrase, or clause that is replaced by a pronoun (or other substitute) when mentioned subsequently (in the same sentence or later)
e.g. "Emily is nice because she brings me flowers."

appositive
a noun or noun phrase that re-identifies or describes its neighbouring noun
e.g. "Canada, a multicultural country, is recognized by its maple leaf flag."

approach
the teaching method used

aptitude test
a standardized test that measures a learner's ability to acquire knowledge and skills

article
a "determiner" used to indicate a noun; (indefinite=a, an) (definite=the)

aspiration
pronunciation that involves a release of breath

assessment
evaluation based on a learner's achievements

assimilation
where learners of different backgrounds (or levels) identify themselves as one group

assimilating
type of learning where explanations and concepts are most important

audio lingual
teaching related to listening and speaking

auditory learners
people who learn best by having discussions and listening to lectures

authentic task
task where language is practised in a way that is similar to the real world (role playing)

authentic text or material
texts taken from the real word, not adapted for learning purposes (newspapers)

automaticity
completed (often refers to speaking) unconsciously or without effort

auxiliary verb
(also called "helping verbs")
a verb used with the main verb to help indicate something such as tense or voice
e.g. "have, be, do"

base form
the basic form of a verb before conjugation into tenses
e.g. "be"

beginner
the lowest level of English learner; learner may have had little or no previous exposure to the language

benchmarks
descriptors or reference points for measuring learning

bilabial
consonant sounds formed using both lips

bottom up learning/processing
starts with small or detailed learning (such as grammar) and progresses to large or more important concepts (such as reading a piece of text)

brainstorming
gathering up many thoughts and ideas based on one subject

burn out
when a learner can no longer process new knowledge or develop new skills due to over learning or stress (teachers can also suffer from this)

case
form of a noun or pronoun that identifies a relationship to other words in the sentence; the three functions of case are "nominative, possessive and objective"

CELTA
Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults

chain schools
language learning schools that have many locations in one country or around the world (under the same business name) e.g. GEOS, Berlitz, ECC

chants
repetitive lines of rhythmic text that learners say out loud in a group; language learning technique related to using music in the classroom

choral reading
group reading aloud where the pace is set by the teacher

chunk
words that are often understood or learned together as in fixed phrases; "chunking" means to organize learning into manageable amounts

circulating
moving around a room to observe and assist learners

classroom climate
the physical and emotional atmosphere or feeling in a classroom

clause
an incomplete sentence that contains a subject and a predicate

cliché
an expression that has been overused and is thus considered weak in writing

cloze
a blank spot in a passage that a learner must fill in

cognates
words that are spelled the same in L1 and L2 (have different pronunciation)

collocation
the tendency for certain words to appear together

communicative approach
an approach to language teaching in which the learner's main goal is to be able to communicate in the real world, and the teacher's role is as a facilitator

comparative (adjective)
words used to compare two things (not three or more)

complement
part of a sentence that is required to complete or provide meaning to a sentence

compound noun
a noun that is made up of more than one word; can be one word, hyphenated, or separated by a space
e.g. "toothbrush," "Christmas Day", "mother-in-law"

compound sentence
a sentence with at least two independent clauses; usually joined by a conjunction
e.g. "You can have something healthy, but you can't have more junk."

comprehensible input
theory that language learners only acquire a language if they basically understand what the teacher is saying or presenting

comprehensible output
theory that language learning occurs when people attempt and fail to communicate and are forced to try again

comprehension
achieving full understanding; "written comprehension" refers to an understanding of what has been read

computer assisted learning (CALL) (also called "e-learning")
using the computer for learning

computer-based test (CBT)
an alternative to paper-based testing; test that is administered and taken on the computer

conditional
structure in English where one action depends on another ("if-then" structure); most common are first, second and third conditional

conjunction
words that join or connect parts of a sentence
e.g. "and, but, or"

consonant cluster
a group of consonants without a vowel that form more than one sound
e.g. "spl"

content words
words that have meaning such as nouns (opposite of "function words" such as pronouns and auxiliary verbs)

(in) context
parts of a piece of text (such as paragraphs) that precede and follow a certain detail

contraction
the shortening of two words into one
e.g. "is not=isn't"

convergence
tendency to change the sound of your own voice to make it similar to someone you are talking to

cooperative learning
a teaching method in which learners are placed into small groups of different levels and given a task

coping strategies
efforts learners make to reduce stress while learning

course book
the main text book that learners use for a specific class

critical period
a hypothesis that suggests there is a certain time in a learner's life (before age 12) when language acquisition can fully occur; the theory suggests that after this period the learning capacity is weakened and native-like pronunciation is unlikely

curriculum
description of courses and/or content in a program

dangling modifier
an illogical structure that occurs in a sentence when a writer intends to modify one word but the reader attaches it to another word
e.g. "Running to the bus, the flowers were blooming." (In the example sentence it seems the flowers were running.)

declarative sentence
a statement (as opposed to a question or command)

deductive approach
a traditional method of teaching grammar in which the rules are dictated to the learner first (see "inductive approach")

deep learning
where the learner analyses new information and ideas and links these to previous knowledge with the goal of long term retention and understanding (see "surface learning")

demo lesson
part of the interview process in which the applicant teaches a real class (usually a mini-lesson) in front of an interviewer or panel

demonstrative pronoun
a word that identifies which person or thing is being referred to
e.g. "this, that, these, those"

dependent clause
(also called "subordinate clause")
part of a sentence that contains a subject and a verb but does not form a complete thought and cannot stand on its own
e.g. "When the water came out of the tap..."

descriptive grammar
grammar that is based on how people actually use the language, not Standard English

determiners
words such as "articles" "possessives" or other "adjectives" that come at the beginning of noun phrases

dictation practice
where learners attempt to reproduce what they hear in the form of text (graded dictations)

diphthong
a single vowel that glides into two sounds
e.g. the "o" in "boy"

direct method
teaching method in which only the target language is used (learners are not permitted to use their native language)

direct object
the noun or pronoun or noun phrase that receives the action in a sentence and answers "what" or "whom"
e.g. "Joey bought the car." (see "indirect object")

diversity
the differences between students in a classroom (culture, level, gender)

drill
repetitive practice with the aim of perfecting a specific skill

EAP
English for Academic Purposes; preparation for learners who are entering English secondary and post secondary schools

EFL vs. ESL
often used interchangeably; English as a Second Language refers to teaching in countries such as the USA where English is the native language; English as a Foreign Language refers to teaching in countries such as Thailand where English is not the native language

electronic dictionary
a hand held dictionary that translates a word from the learner's native language to the target language

elicitation
strategies and methods for getting learners to respond or guess (in contrast to the teacher providing all of the information or answers)

embedded questions
questions that occur within another statement or question and generally follow statement structure
e.g. "I don't know where he went." OR "Can you tell me where it is?"

EMT
English Mother Tongue

error analysis
a study that looks at the patterns of errors of language learners

error recognition
a type of question in which the learner has to spot the language mistake

ESOL
English for Speakers of other Languages

ESP
English for Specific Purposes
e.g. law, medicine, business

ETS
Educational Testing Service; a non profit organization that creates and administers standardized assessment tests such as TOEIC and TOEFL

experiential learning
learning based on actual experience

external examiner
ensures that standards are consistent at higher education level (UK)

facilitator
a person who assists or supports a learning group that is attempting to perform a task; remains neutral

false friends
words that look similar to words in another language, but have a different meaning in each language

fillers
learning activities and games similar to "warm ups" that fill time when a lesson ends before a class finishes or during a transition period

first conditional
used for future actions or events that are likely to happen (if + present simple +will)
e.g. "If it's sunny, we will go to the beach."

flap
a quick flick of the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth or alveolar ridge
e.g. the "t" in "daughter"

fluency
the ability to express oneself without effort

form focused task
a teaching method where learners are introduced to one learning item at a time with hopes that mastering each skill will eventually lead to learning a language

formulaic speech
the use of words or phrases that a learner uses without really understanding the meaning

forums
online discussion boards where learners and teachers can connect

fossilization
the theory that certain grammatical errors are learned over time (such as the incorrect use of a certain tense) and become a permanent part of a learner's second language (contributing to "interlanguage")

fragment
a phrase that is incorrectly punctuated as a sentence but does not contain a complete thought

free practice
time set aside for learners to practise a skill with little direction from the teacher

functional language
fixed expressions used for specific communications purposes
e.g. language related to "making a suggestion"

gerund
the noun form (ing) of a verb
e.g. "Walking is great exercise."

gist
the main point or central meaning of a piece of text (or audio segment)

glottal stop
a speech sound made by momentarily closing the back of the throat (glottis) and then releasing the air
e.g. "Uh-oh"

graded reader
a text that has been adapted for language learners and targets a specific level of reader

grading rubric
a summary of criteria for assessment; includes various levels of achievement for each task or skill

Grammar Translation (formerly called the "Classical Method")
a traditional language teaching method that requires learners to memorize grammar rules and vocabulary and translate large amounts of text into English; still one of the widely used teaching methods

guided practice
section in a lesson that gives learners the chance to use what they have been taught

high frequency words
words that appear most often in everyday communication

homestay
living with a local family while learning at a language school

homophone
words that sound the same but differ in meaning and/or spelling
e.g. "hare, hair"

IELTS
International English Language Testing Service: A standardized exam that measures the four main language skills

imperative
verb that gives a command; formed with base verb only
e.g. "Brush your teeth."

imperfect tense
(also called "past progressive or past continuous")
verbs that describe action from the past that was ongoing
e.g. "I was walking..." OR "I used to walk" OR "I would walk..."

independent clause
(also called "main clause")
a group of words that expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence

indirect object
a noun or pronoun that answers "for whom" or "to whom" the verb indirectly affects
e.g. "She showed me her book collection."(see "direct object")

indirect question
a sentence that ends with a period but contains a question within
e.g. "She asked me what I wanted to eat."

inductive approach
a modern theory of teaching grammar in which the rules are taught in context or in a practical situation

inflection (grammar)
a slight change to a word form
e.g. adding "s" to form a plural

inflection (pronunciation)
the change of tone of a voice

information gap
a type of activity where the learner must fill in missing information

Instructional design
development and evaluation of instructional materials and activities

intensive course
a learning course that take place during a reduced period of time (each class is generally longer in length than an average class)

interactive writing
where learners practise writing skills in a creative and open ended way with other learners and/or the teacher
e.g. journal writing, chain stories

interlanguage
a language that is a mix between the target language and the mother tongue

interjection
a common word that expresses emotion but has no grammatical value; can sometimes be used alone and is often followed by an exclamation point
e.g. "Ouch!"

intermediate
language learning level between beginner and advanced; learners at this level typically have a working English vocabulary and can communicate in real situations with effort

international English
(also "Global or World English")
used in reference to English being named a global language of communication

Internet-based test (iBT)
a test (often standardized such as TOEFL) that is taken online

interrogative (also called "wh-word")
words that are used in questions
e.g. "who, how, why, where"

intonation
the change in pitch of your voice as you speak

intransitive verb
an action verb that does not take a direct object (receiver of action)
e.g. "The kids always eat while they watch TV." (see "transitive")

jargon (also called or "lingo")
expression or word typical of a certain group of speakers, but not considered Standard English

JET
Japanese Exchange and Teaching Programme; an opportunity for young teachers who want to visit and teach in Japan

journal
a notebook where learners can practise free writing and receive regular feedback from teachers

kinaesthetic learners
people who learn best though physical response; these learners have difficulty sitting for long periods of time

L1
First (primary or native) language

L2
Second language

language lab
a school room with computers and/or audio equipment where learners can practise skills they have learned in the classroom on their own, especially listening to English

lesson plan
a teacher's description of an individual lesson; usually includes title, language target and level, materials required, and a summary of the activities and practice that will take place (seasoned teachers often reduce to point form notes)

lexis
all of the words and word forms in a language with meaning or function

linking verb
verbs that connect the subject to more information (but do not indicate action), such as "be" or "seem"

(ELT) materials
educational resources for teachers and/or learners, including things such as books, tests, websites, handouts and audiovisual materials

Meta skill
those skills that allow learners to acquire other skills
e.g. good listening skills help learners to increase vocabulary

minimal pair
two words that differ only in terms of one sound; often used in pronunciation practice
e.g. "cat and bat" OR "fine and vine"

modals (also called "modal verbs")
auxiliary verbs such as can, could, have to, must, should, shall and would; paired with the bare infinitive of a verb
e.g. "I should go for a jog."

modifier
describing words or phrases, such as adjectives, adverbs and prepositional phrases

module
an educational unit which is usually studied over a set amount of time (sometimes independently)

mood
verb form that depicts the attitude of the writer or speaker
e.g. subjunctive, indicative, imperative, conditional

morpheme
a unit of language with meaning; differs from "words" because some cannot stand alone
e.g. "unpredictable" consists of 3 morphemes "un", "predict" and "able"

Mother tongue (also called "native language")
the dominant language a person hears and learns in childhood

motivation
the drive to learn and improve

multi sensory activities
activities that require learners to use many of the senses, including listening, seeing and touching

multilingual
proficient in more than two languages

native language (also called "Mother tongue")
the dominant language a person hears and learns in childhood

native speaker
a person whose first language is the target language of the learner (English)

Natural Approach
the theory that learners should acquire a language as babies do, beginning with silent listening

needs assessment
a process in which teachers determine the needs and abilities of the learners in their class in order to plan a program appropriately; usually takes place at the beginning of a course

negative
forms where "not" is placed after the auxiliary verb, (often contracted with an apostrophe)
e.g. "I don't like school."

nominative case
a term used to explain that the noun or pronoun is the "subject" rather than the "object" in an example sentence or clause

non-restrictive clause (also called "non-defining")
a relative clause that adds information but is not completely necessary; set off from the sentence with a comma
e.g. "The boy, who had a chocolate bar in his hand, was still hungry." (see "restrictive clause")

noun
part of speech (subject or object) that names a person, place, thing, quality, quantity, or concept (see "proper and compound noun")

noun clause
a clause that takes the place of a noun and cannot stand on its own; often introduced with words such as "that, who, or whoever"
e.g. "What the president said was surprising."

object
the thing or person affected by the verb;
e.g. "We chose the house with the red door." (see "direct" or "indirect" objects)

objective case
a term used to explain that the noun is the "direct object" of the verb

observed teaching practice
(also called "practicum")
part of a teacher training program that involves getting practice in a real classroom and receiving feedback from an experienced teacher; usually a required number of hours

onomatopoeia
a word that sounds like the sound word it represents
e.g. "buzz"

open ended question
a question that requires more than a yes/no answer (or multiple choice selection) and requires the learner to use his/her own words
e.g. "How do you feel about the class?"

open learning
a teaching method where the learner decides what he or she needs and wants to study and practise

over correction
refers to the tendency of some teachers to correct every error without giving learners any opportunity to find their own mistakes

parts of speech
groupings of words that are classified according to their function in a sentence
e.g. noun, pronoun, verb, adjective

participle
a verb form that can be used as an adjective or a noun
(see "past participle" and "present participle")

passive voice
an indirect form of expression in which the subject receives the action
e.g. "The child's hand was licked by the cat." (see "active voice")

past perfect
a tense that refers to the past in the past; formed with subject + "had" + past participle
e.g. "We had stopped the car."

past participle
refers to past or completed action and is used in passive sentences and as adjectives; usually formed by adding "ed" to the base verb
e.g. "The shoes were polished." OR "I see a torn page."

pedagogic task
classroom tasks that learners would unlikely need to do in the real world

peer evaluation
learners providing feedback (or assigning marks) to other learners

person
a grammatical term that refers to the relationship between the writer/speaker or the listener/reader; first person (I, we) second person (you), third person (he/she/it/they)

personal pronoun
a pronoun that refers to a specific person or thing and takes the place of a noun
e.g. "Jesse is my brother. He likes dogs."

phoneme
the smallest unit of sound; carries no meaning on its own

phonics
a teaching method where learners are taught how to read by associating certain letters and letter groupings with certain sounds

phonology
the study of language sounds and sound patterns

phrasal verb
(also called "multi-word verb")
verbs formed with a verb plus an adverb; (see "transitive" and "intransitive")
e.g. "break up", "turn off" Phrasal Verbs Reference

phrase
two or more words that have a single function and form part of a sentence; phrases can be noun, adjective, adverbial, verb, or prepositional

placement test
a test that helps teachers or administrators determine a learner's language level; used for creating classes with distinct levels

plosive
a sound characterized by a sudden burst of air

plural
form that refers to more than one

podcast
a regularly updated audio segment that can be played back on a computer or downloaded to a listening device such as an MP3 player for future listening

positive degree
the state of an adjective or adverb when it shows quality but doesn't show any comparison
e.g. "nice, kind, quickly" (see "superlative" and "comparative")

possessive pronoun
a type of pronoun that indicates ownership or possession
e.g. "my, your, his, hers, their, our"

PPP
stands for "presentation, practice, production"; the main components to a lesson

practicum (also called "observed teaching")
part of a teacher training program that involves getting practice in a real classroom and receiving feedback from an experienced teacher; usually a required number of hours

pragmatics
the study of language and how people speak in a certain context or situation

predicate
one of the two main parts of a sentence explaining what is said of the subject (the subject is the other main part)

preparation time
the time a teacher spends getting ready for a class; can be paid or unpaid
e.g. photocopying, writing lesson plans, choosing supplementary materials, marking

preposition
a word that shows some type of relationship between a noun or noun phrase and another word, including time, location, quantity, state or purpose
e.g. "by, to, at, with, on, for, in, from, of"

prepositional verb
verbs that are formed with a verb + a preposition
e.g. "believe in", "think about"

prescriptive grammar
the rules and examples of language usage used to teach a language

present participle
verb with many uses (such as past continuous and in combination with verbs of movement); is usually formed with base verb + "ing"; can also function as an adjective
e.g. "We went hiking." OR "It was an exciting show."

present perfect
a verb tense that connects the past and the present and is used to express experience, change, or a continuing situation; formed with subject + "have/has" + past participle
e.g. "I have never been to Africa."

private lesson
a one-on-one teaching session between a learner and a teacher/tutor

process approach
a method for teaching writing that walks learners through the strategies of pre-writing, writing and revision stages

product approach
a method for teaching writing in which learners are given a model and then asked to create something similar

proficiency test
a test that measures a learner's language background and skills (often used as a "placement test")

progressive
a verb form that expresses ongoing action
e.g. "We are studying penguins."

pronunciation
the sound that is made when forming a spoken word (the general or "acceptable" pronunciation of an English word varies based on region or country)

pronoun
a word that replaces a noun; there are several types including personal pronouns, relative pronouns and indefinite pronouns

proper noun
a noun that is capitalized at all times, such as the name of a person, place, or brand

pull-out ESL
a program where students are removed from a regular classroom for part of the day to receive English language instruction

punctuation
standard marks such as commas, periods and question marks within a sentence

rate of acquisition
how quickly the learner acquires the second language

realia
objects from the real world that learners can use while practising the language to make a classroom feel more like a real life setting

recruiting agency (also called "placement agency")
a business that acts as a middle man between the teacher and the school; schools pay recruiters to find teachers

recycling
a teaching method in which teachers (or materials) review vocabulary or skills that have already been taught by including them in subsequent lessons

reduced clause
a shortened relative clause (omit relative pronoun and "be" verb) or adverbial clause (omit subject and "be" verb) which is allowed under certain conditions
e.g. "The woman who is sitting on the bench is my sister." Relative clause reduced to: "The woman sitting on the bench is my sister."

rehearsal
refers to the place in a lesson where learners get to practise what they've learned (in a variety of ways)

relative clause
a dependent clause that is usually introduced with a relative pronoun such as who, what, where or that (see "reduced clause"); information can be required for understanding (defining/restrictive with no commas) or unnecessary but interesting (non-defining/non-restrictive with commas)
e.g. "The person who finishes first can leave early." (defining) OR "My brother, who lives in Texas, is coming to visit." (non-defining)

restrictive clause (also called "defining clause")
a type of relative clause that contains information that is required for the understanding of the sentence; not set off with commas
e.g. "The boy who was wearing a blue shirt was the winner." (see non-restrictive clause)

role-play
a form of speaking practice where the learners pretend to be people they are not

scaffolding
offering strong instructional support when introducing a new concept or idea; including a discussion based on prior knowledge of a subject and offering images or other visual aids

scan
a type of reading that involves searching for something specific (such as an answer) in a piece of text

schema theory
a process where learners draw from their own background knowledge to understand a reading

schwa
an unstressed vowel (the most common type of vowel sound in English); transcribed as an upside down e
e.g. the "a" in "account"; the "i" in "tickle"; the "u" in "sun"

second conditional
the condition used to talk about an unreal dream or unlikely possibility in the future; formed with "if" + "past simple" + "would" + "base verb"
e.g. "If we got rich, we would travel the world."

self access materials/centres(SAC)
resources or resource rooms where learners can choose their own books, handouts and audio visual programs to supplement their learning

semantics
the study of language meaning, including connotative meaning

semi private lesson
a tutoring style session in which two or three learners share one teacher; learners generally pay slightly less than private lessons

series
a grammatical term referring to a list of items in a sentence
e.g. "The children ate popsicles, popcorn and chips."

sight vocabulary
words that are commonly used in text and are the first ones that learners spot and recognize when developing reading skills

silent period
a period of time in the initial phase of learning a language where a learner should not be required to respond but rather encouraged to understand what is being taught (according to some theorists)

simple past
the tense used to talk about an action, event, or situation that occurred and was completed in the past
e.g. "We ate cookies for breakfast."

simple present
the tense that is used to show something general, habitual, or always true
e.g. "I like tea." OR "We go to the movies on Fridays."

singular
related to "one" and can be a noun, subject, or verb; a singular subject takes a singular verb (in grammar "number" refers to whether something is singular or plural)

skills-based
materials or lessons that are centred around certain types of skills such as reading, listening, pronunciation etc.

skim
to glance over a piece of text without reading fully

slip
a minor language mistake in spoken English (by a native speaker or advanced learner)

sociolinguistic competence
the ability to use and understand the appropriate language in different social situations

Standard English (S.E.)
the "normal" spelling, pronunciation and grammar that is used by educated native speakers

stress
the extra time given to certain syllables or spoken words of importance
e.g. "We don't want to worsen the problem." OR "The pho-to-grapher is late."

STT
Student Talking Time; the amount of time during class when learners get to do the talking (see TTT)

student centred learning
method of teaching where the needs and interests of the students receive priority and the teacher's role is "facilitator"

student feedback
reaction or evaluation from learners (directed towards other learners or the teacher)

subject
a noun or pronoun that does the action (or "is" the state)
e.g. "The rain came down in buckets." OR "Mary is beautiful." (see "predicate")

subjunctive
a rare verb formed with the bare infinitive (except past of "be") usually used to express importance or urgency; common verbs or expressions include "recommend/ask/suggest + that" or expressions like "it is important/necessary that"
e.g. "The teacher requests that you be at the school before the bell rings."

submersion
(also called "sink or swim")
approach in which L2 are placed in the same class as L1 in the hope that they will learn as much as possible

subordinate clause
(also called "dependent clause")
an adverb or adjective clause that contains a subject and a verb but does not form a complete sentence
e.g. "When I'm tired, I have to take a nap." (see "independent clause")

superlative
an adjective or adverb that describes the extreme degree of something
e.g. "happiest" OR "most joyfully"

supplementary materials
extra worksheets, games, books etc. that a teacher uses for teaching materials in addition to a core text (often based on the same theme or skill set)

surface learning
when a learner memorizes facts and accepts information for the purpose of an exam; long-term retention and understanding is unlikely (see "deep learning")

syllable
a single beat or sound in a spoken word
e.g. "diff-i-cult" has three syllables

syllabus
an outline of the subjects in a course or program

syntax
the study of rules related to proper sentence formation

tape script/transcript
the text version of an audio segment or lesson

target language
the language being taught (English); also sometimes refers to the language goal or aim to be presented in a lesson

teachable moment
an educational opportunity that comes up often unexpectedly and is taught as an aside

teacher centred
a teaching method (outdated in the EFL industry) where the instructor does most of the talking

teaching aids
equipment, supplies, or materials that a teacher uses in the classroom
e.g. tapes, videos, white board

TEFL/TESL certificate
a training certificate for teachers who want to teach English to learners of different native language ; certificates range in length, intensity and credibility (see ESL vs EFL)

TEFL vs. TESL
Teach English as a Foreign Language vs. Teach English as a Second Language (see EFL vs. ESL)

tense
the forms in a language that indicate the time and completion of an action or state
e.g. simple tenses include past, present, future

theme-based
a whole language program or curriculum that is organized by themes or topics rather than skills
e.g. animals; family; seasons

third conditional
a condition in the past that did not happen
e.g. "If it had rained yesterday, we would have cancelled the game."

TOEFL
Test of English as a Foreign Language; a standardized exam that tests the four main language skills and is used as an entrance prerequisite for post-secondary education in the U.S.

TOEIC
Test of English for International Communication; a standardized exam that tests a person's ability to use English in business and everyday situations

top down learning/processing
begins with general overview of a learning skill and proceeds to more specific aspects

Total physical response
part of the Communicative Approach; learners are encouraged to respond with actions before words

transferable skills
acquired skills that a person learns in one job and can be used later in a different job or career

transitive verb
an action verb that has a direct object (receiver of action)
e.g. "The kids always eat a snack while they watch TV." The "snack" is the direct object. (see "intransitive")

TTT
Teacher Talking Time; the amount of time a teacher talks and the learner listens

tutor
a person who assists a learner privately; teaching session usually focuses on learner difficulties and specific goals

two way
bilingual environment in which L1 learners are taught L2 and vice versa at the same time

(U.S.S.R.)
Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading: a reading strategy where learners are required to read silently for a certain period of time

usage
the way language is used, especially in a certain country or region

velar
a consonant that is pronounced by touching the back of the tongue to the soft palate
e.g. "ng" in "sing" or "c" in "can"

verb
a word that describes action, state or occurence and that forms the main part of the predicate; most verbs can change their form depending on tense and person
e.g. "walk, be, can, seem"

vernacular style
everyday language that is characteristic of a specific country or group

virtual field trip
a collection of images, text and/or video from the World Wide Web that is gathered and packaged into a presentation on a certain topic

voiced
a sound that involves the vibration of the glottis

visual learner
people who learn best when teachers use body language, facial expression and pictures

voiceless
a sound where the glottis is open (not vibrating)

voicing
refers to the measurement of whether a sound is voiced or not

VSO
Voluntary Service Overseas

warmer/warm-up
a fun activity that brings energy into the classroom and usually precedes a lesson

whole language
a language learning theory that stresses the importance of integrating reading, writing, speaking and listening

zero conditional
used when the result of the condition is always true (based on fact)
e.g. "If you heat ice it melts."