It is indeed surprising that these aspects were not adequately covered in a TEFL course. IMHO, more reason to be careful when selecting one, and possibly to opt for a proper face-to-face course.
For your urgent needs, I would suggest searching the websites of leading publishers of texbooks, e.g. Longman, Macmillan, CUP, OUP, etc. they have extensive online aids for teachers and free downloadable material to print and use. Their sites usually have a search box to gain rapid access to the kind of things you need. Also the pages of the main TEFL.net
site here are crammed with useful information in the resources section. Check out the link in the nav bar above.
You could also purchase a copy of Essential Grammar in Use
- the English teachers' grammar bible - by Raymond Murphy, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-55928-6. It will be your best friend until it falls apart from use