In questions, "does" can only only take a 3rd person noun (singular) + a base verb:
Does + 3S + V.
No other verb forms are allowed (past, etc). Test for yourself.
The only base verb that isn't allowed is "be". (Does he be = incorrect)
There are no exceptions to this rule.
For other 'person' nouns, use "do", which also can only take a base verb:
Do + (1,2,3P) + V.
Again, there are no exceptions to this rule. Test for yourself.
Do/does are only used for "present tense" questions which have a verb as their main "target". All other "targets" require a "be verb". (This can also be laid-out formulaically.)
Personally, I don't teach most of the traditional grammatical terms or explanations, which are more suited for NES grammarians. I find they only add an unnecessary layer of complexity that just confuses EFL students. (Then many end up hating grammar.)
Like other rules (eg, class management), grammar should be simplified whenever possible (without sacrificing accuracy) into visually minimalist forms that are easier for students to remember, apply, & self-correct.
If an error is made, I signal it and ask, "What's the rule?" And they say, "After do or does, you can only put a base verb." After a few months, the error rate is drastically reduced.